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Types of Building Materials

Updated: Aug 31, 2021

Types of Building Materials

For different types of a home build, the construction industry uses a number of building materials. Architects consult structural engineers about the load-bearing capacities of the materials they design with, with masonry, steel, wood, concrete, and stone being the most frequent. Each has a different strength, weight, and longevity, making it suitable for a variety of applications. The usage of construction materials in the building industry is regulated by national standards and testing methods, so they can be trusted to provide durability. Engineers also consider cost and appearance while selecting materials.


Concrete is a composite material created by combining cement with aggregates like sand and crushed stone, as well as water. The ratios used in the mix design determine the properties of concrete. As a result, concrete providers are required to give material attributes and test results for each concrete patch.

Concrete works in any shape or form, but it takes time to cure into a stone-like material. Concrete can take up to 7 days to attain the bulk of its strength, and curing must be done carefully to avoid cracking or a reduction in capacity.


Steel is a metal alloy made up of iron and carbon, with additional alloying materials added to make it stronger and more fracture-resistant than iron. Because of the extra chromium in their composition, stainless steels resist corrosion and oxidation. Structural engineers utilize it for the structural framework of towering modern buildings and vast industrial complexes because it is so robust compared to its weight and size. Steel's strength-to-weight and strength-to-size ratios are both high.


Wood has been used as a building material for hundreds of years and can last for hundreds of years if maintained properly. It is a widely accessible and financially feasible natural resource that is light in weight and highly machinable. It also provides excellent cold insulation, making it an excellent building material for homes and residential structures.


The most durable building material available is one that has been around for countless generations: stone. In fact, stone has been used in the construction of the world's oldest structures. It has many advantages, but engineers and architects must take certain precautions when designing a stone structure.

For thousands of years, dry stone walls made of dense rock have been used. Later, various types of mortar were used to keep them together. Stone can be tough to deal with because of its density, which makes it heavy and difficult to move.


Individual units are used to build structures in masonry construction, which are normally linked together using mortar. Concrete block is the most material commonly utilized in the design of masonry structures, with vertical steel reinforcing if necessary. Masonry has a high resistance to compression loads/stresses, making it ideal for the construction of load-bearing walls. Brick, stone, and glass blocks are examples of other masonry materials. Masonry is a long-lasting and fire-resistant material, although it is susceptible to poor mortar and construction.

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